JMIR Publications

interactive Journal of Medical Research

A general medical journal, focusing on innovation in health and medical research


Journal Description

i-JMR is a general medical journal with a focus on innovation in health, health care, and medicine - through new medical techniques and innovative ideas and/or research, including - but not limited to - technology, clinical informatics, or groundbreaking research.

Published by JMIR Publications, publisher of JMIR, the leading eHealth/mHealth journal (Impact Factor 2014: 3.4), i-JMR is a JMIR "sister journal" which features a rapid and thorough peer-review process, professional copyediting, professional production of PDF, XHTML, and XML proofs.

i-JMR is indexed in PubMed and archived in PubMed Central.

i-JMR is also indexed in Thomson Reuters new Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) and has a projected impact factor (2015): 1.5.


Recent Articles:

  • e-Vita COPD/PORTALS.
This image is created by the author. The author retains sole copyright to her contributions.

    An eHealth Platform to Manage Chronic Disease in Primary Care: An Innovative Approach


    The number of individuals with chronic illness and multimorbidity is growing due to the rapid ageing of the population and the greater longevity of individuals. This causes an increasing workload in care, which results in a growing need for structural changes of the health care system. In recent years this led to a strong focus on promoting “self-management” in chronically ill patients. Research showed that patients who understand more about their disease, health, and lifestyle have better experiences and health outcomes, and often use less health care resources; the effect is even more when these patients are empowered to and responsible for managing their health and disease. In addition to the skills of patients, health care professionals need to shift to a role of teacher, partner, and professional supervisor of their patients. One way of supervising patients is by the use of electronic health (eHealth), which helps patients manage and control their disease. The application of eHealth solutions can provide chronically ill patients high-quality care, to the satisfaction of both patients and health care professionals, alongside a reduction in health care consumption and costs.

  • Using the VAS on an iPad (image taken by authors who hold the copyright).

    Accuracy, Validity, and Reliability of an Electronic Visual Analog Scale for Pain on a Touch Screen Tablet in Healthy Older Adults: A Clinical Trial


    Background: New technology for clinical data collection is rapidly evolving and may be useful for both researchers and clinicians; however, this new technology has not been tested for accuracy, reliability, or validity. Objective: This study aims to test the accuracy of visual analog scale (VAS) for pain on a newly designed application on the iPad (iPadVAS) and measure the reliability and validity of iPadVAS compared to a paper copy (paperVAS). Methods: Accuracy was determined by physically measuring an iPad scale on screen and comparing it to the results from the program, with a researcher collecting 101 data points. A total of 22 healthy community dwelling older adults were then recruited to test reliability and validity. Each participant completed 8 VAS (4 using each tool) in a randomized order. Reliability was measured using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and validity measured using Bland-Altman graphs and correlations. Results: Of the measurements for accuracy, 64 results were identical, 2 results were manually measured as being 1 mm higher than the program, and 35 as 1 mm lower. Reliability for the iPadVAS was excellent with individual ICC 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.95) and averaged ICC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-1.0) observed. Linear regression demonstrated a strong relationship with a small negative bias towards the iPad (−2.6, SD 5.0) with limits of agreement from −12.4 to 7.1. Conclusions: The iPadVAS provides a convenient, user-friendly, and efficient way of collecting data from participants in measuring their current pain levels. It has potential use in documentation management and may encourage participatory healthcare. Trial Registration: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 367297; (Archived by Webcite at

  • Biotronik CardioMessenger. Image Source: Biotronik (c) Biotronik (fair use).

    Large Controlled Observational Study on Remote Monitoring of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators: A Clinical, Economic, and Organizational...


    Background: Patients with implantable devices such as pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) should be followed up every 3–12 months, which traditionally required in-clinic visits. Innovative devices allow data transmission and technical or medical alerts to be sent from the patient's home to the physician (remote monitoring). A number of studies have shown its effectiveness in timely detection and management of both clinical and technical events, and endorsed its adoption. Unfortunately, in daily practice, remote monitoring has been implemented in uncoordinated and rather fragmented ways, calling for a more strategic approach. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of remote monitoring for PM and ICD in a “real world” context compared with in-clinic follow-up. The evaluation focuses on how this service is carried out by Local Health Authorities, the impact on the cardiology unit and the health system, and organizational features promoting or hindering its effectiveness and efficiency. Methods: A multi-center, multi-vendor, controlled, observational, prospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of remote monitoring implementation. A total of 2101 patients were enrolled in the study: 1871 patients were followed through remote monitoring of PM/ICD (I-group) and 230 through in-clinic visits (U-group). The follow-up period was 12 months. Results: In-clinic device follow-ups and cardiac visits were significantly lower in the I-group compared with the U-group, respectively: PM, I-group = 0.43, U-group = 1.07, P<.001; ICD, I-group = 0.98, U-group = 2.14, P<.001. PM, I-group = 0.37, U-group = 0.85, P<.001; ICD, I-group = 1.58, U-group = 1.69, P=.01. Hospitalizations for any cause were significantly lower in the I-group for PM patients only (I-group = 0.37, U-group = 0.50, P=.005). There were no significant differences regarding use of the emergency department for both PM and ICD patients. In the I-group, 0.30 (PM) and 0.37 (ICD) real clinical events per patient per year were detected within a mean (SD) time of 1.18 (2.08) days. Mean time spent by physicians to treat a patient was lower in the I-group compared to the U-group (-4.1 minutes PM; -13.7 minutes ICD). Organizational analysis showed that remote monitoring implementation was rather haphazard and fragmented. From a health care system perspective, the economic analysis showed statistically significant gains (P<.001) for the I-group using PM. Conclusions: This study contributes to build solid evidence regarding the usefulness of RM in detecting and managing clinical and technical events with limited use of manpower and other health care resources. To fully gain the benefits of RM of PM/ICD, it is vital that organizational processes be streamlined and standardized within an overarching strategy.

  • Multi User Patient Management via MSDS 3D |

(image created by authors who hold the copyright).

    Designing an Electronic Patient Management System for Multiple Sclerosis: Building a Next Generation Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System


    Background: Technologies like electronic health records or telemedicine devices support the rapid mediation of health information and clinical data independent of time and location between patients and their physicians as well as among health care professionals. Today, every part of the treatment process from diagnosis, treatment selection, and application to patient education and long-term care may be enhanced by a quality-assured implementation of health information technology (HIT) that also takes data security standards and concerns into account. In order to increase the level of effectively realized benefits of eHealth services, a user-driven needs assessment should ensure the inclusion of health care professional perspectives into the process of technology development as we did in the development process of the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System 3D. After analyzing the use of information technology by patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, we focused on the needs of neurological health care professionals and their handling of health information technology. Objective: Therefore, we researched the status quo of eHealth adoption in neurological practices and clinics as well as health care professional opinions about potential benefits and requirements of eHealth services in the field of multiple sclerosis. Methods: We conducted a paper-and-pencil–based mail survey in 2013 by sending our questionnaire to 600 randomly chosen neurological practices in Germany. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering characteristics of participating neurological practices (4 items), the current use of network technology and the Internet in such neurological practices (5 items), physicians’ attitudes toward the general and MS-related usefulness of eHealth systems (8 items) and toward the clinical documentation via electronic health records (4 items), and physicians’ knowledge about the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System (3 items). Results: From 600 mailed surveys, 74 completed surveys were returned. As much as 9 of the 10 practices were already connected to the Internet (67/74), but only 49% preferred a permanent access. The most common type of HIT infrastructure was a complete practice network with several access points. Considering data sharing with research registers, 43% opted for an online interface, whereas 58% decided on an offline method of data transmission. eHealth services were perceived as generally useful for physicians and nurses in neurological practices with highest capabilities for improvements in clinical documentation, data acquisition, diagnosis of specific MS symptoms, physician-patient communication, and patient education. Practices specialized in MS in comparison with other neurological practices presented an increased interest in online documentation. Among the participating centers, 91% welcomed the opportunity of a specific clinical documentation for MS and 87% showed great interest in an extended and more interconnected electronic documentation of MS patients. Clinical parameters (59/74) were most important in documentation, followed by symptomatic parameters like measures of fatigue or depression (53/74) and quality of life (47/74). Conclusions: Physicians and nurses may significantly benefit from an electronically assisted documentation and patient management. Many aspects of patient documentation and education will be enhanced by eHealth services if the most informative measures are integrated in an easy-to-use and easily connectable approach. MS-specific eHealth services were highly appreciated, but the current level of adoption is still behind the level of interest in an extended and more interconnected electronic documentation of MS patients.

  • Photo by sheelamohan. Published on 12 March 2012 Stock photo - Image ID: 10075663;

    Elderly Learners and Massive Open Online Courses: A Review


    Background: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have become commonplace in the e-learning landscape. Thousands of elderly learners are participating in courses offered by various institutions on a multitude of platforms in many different languages. However, there is very little research into understanding elderly learners in MOOCs. Objective: We aim to show that a considerable proportion of elderly learners are participating in MOOCs and that there is a lack of research in this area. We hope this assertion of the wide gap in research on elderly learners in MOOCs will pave the way for more research in this area. Methods: Pre-course survey data for 10 University of Reading courses on the FutureLearn platform were analyzed to show the level of participation of elderly learners in MOOCs. Two MOOC aggregator sites (Class Central and MOOC List) were consulted to gather data on MOOC offerings that include topics relating to aging. In parallel, a selected set of MOOC platform catalogues, along with a recently published review on health and medicine-related MOOCs, were searched to find courses relating to aging. A systematic literature search was then employed to identify research articles on elderly learners in MOOCs. Results: The 10 courses reviewed had a considerable proportion of elderly learners participating in them. For the over-66 age group, this varied from 0.5% (on the course “Managing people”) to 16.3% (on the course “Our changing climate”), while for the over-56 age group it ranged from 3.0% (on “A beginners guide to writing in English”) to 39.5% (on “Heart health”). Only six MOOCs were found to include topics related to aging: three were on the Coursera platform, two on the FutureLearn platform, and one on the Open2Study platform. Just three scholarly articles relating to MOOCs and elderly learners were retrieved from the literature search. Conclusions: This review presents evidence to suggest that elderly learners are already participating in MOOCs. Despite this, there has been very little research into their engagement with MOOCs. Similarly, there has been little research into exploiting the scope of MOOCs for delivering topics that would be of interest to elderly learners. We believe there is potential to use MOOCs as a way of tackling the issue of loneliness among older adults by engaging them as either resource personnel or learners.

  • Teen using blood glucose meter. (cc) Vaala et al, CC-BY-SA 2.0, please cite as

    Use of Commonly Available Technologies for Diabetes Information and Self-Management Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: A Web-Based...


    Background: For individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), following a complicated daily medical regimen is critical to maintaining optimal health. Adolescents in particular struggle with regimen adherence. Commonly available technologies (eg, diabetes websites, apps) can provide diabetes-related support, yet little is known about how many adolescents with T1D use them, why they are used, or relationships between use and self-management. Objective: This study examined adolescent and parent use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes, including proportions who use each technology, frequency of use, and number of different technologies used for diabetes. Analyses also investigated the reasons adolescents reported for using or not using technologies for diabetes, and factors correlated with adolescents’ technology use. Finally, this study examined relationships between the type and number of technologies adolescents use for diabetes and their self-management and glycemic control. Methods: Adolescents (12-17 years) and their parents (N=174 pairs), recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic (n=134) and the Children with Diabetes community website (n=40), participated in this Web-based survey study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) values were obtained from medical records for pediatric clinic patients. Adolescents reported their use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes (ie, social networking, diabetes websites, mobile diabetes apps, text messaging, and glucometer/insulin pump software), reasons for use, and self-management behavior (Self-Care Inventory-Revised, SCI-R). Results: Most adolescents and parents used at least one of the 5 technologies for diabetes. Among adolescents, the most commonly used technology for diabetes was text messaging (53%), and the least commonly used was diabetes websites (25%). Most adolescents who used diabetes apps, text messaging, or pump/glucometer software did so more frequently (≥2 times per week), compared to social networking and website use (≤1 time per week). The demographic, clinical, and parent-technology use factors related to adolescents’ technology use varied by technology. Adolescents who used social networking, websites, or pump/glucometer software for diabetes had better self-management behavior (SCI-R scores: beta=.18, P=.02; beta=.15, P=.046; beta=.15, P=.04, respectively), as did those who used several technologies for diabetes (beta=.23, P=.003). However, use of diabetes websites was related to poorer glycemic control (A1C: beta=.18, P=.01). Conclusions: Adolescents with T1D may be drawn to different technologies for different purposes, as individual technologies likely offer differing forms of support for diabetes self-management (eg, tracking blood glucose or aiding problem solving). Findings suggest that technologies that are especially useful for adolescents’ diabetes problem solving may be particularly beneficial for their self-management. Additional research should examine relationships between the nature of technology use and adolescents’ T1D self-management over time.

  • Image Source: Stock Photo -

    Internet Services for Communicating With the General Practice: Barely Noticed and Used by Patients


    Background: The Netherlands is one of the frontrunners of eHealth in Europe. Many general practices offer Internet services, which can be used by patients to communicate with their general practice. In promoting and implementing such services, it is important to gain insight into patients’ actual use and intention toward using. Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the actual use and intention toward using Internet services to communicate with the general practice by the general practice population. The secondary objective is to study the factors and characteristics that influence their intention to use such services. Methods: There were 1500 members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel, age over 18 years, that were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. People who had contacted their general practitioner at least once in the past year were included. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire about the following services: Internet appointment planning, asking questions on the Internet, email reminders about appointments, Internet prescription refill requests, Internet access to medical data, and Internet video consultation. Participants indicated whether they had used these services in the past year, they would like to use them, and whether they thought their general practice had these services. For the first two services, participants rated items based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology complemented with additional constructs. These items were divided into six subscales: effort expectancy, performance expectancy, trust, attitude, facilitating conditions, and social influence. Results: There were 546 participants that were included in the analyses out of 593 who met the inclusion criteria. The participants had a mean age of 53 years (SD 15.4), 43.6% (n=238) were male, and 66.8% (n=365) had at least one chronic illness. Actual use of the services varied between 0% (n=0, video consultation) and 10.4% (n=57, requesting prescription refill by Internet). The proportion of participants with a positive intention to use the service varied between 14.7% (n=80, video consultation) and 48.7% (n=266, Internet access to medical data). For each service, approximately half indicated that they did not know whether the service was available. Univariate logistic regression analyses revealed that all the constructs as well as age, level of education, and Internet usage had a significant association with intention toward using Internet appointment planning and asking questions by Internet. Conclusions: Internet communication services to contact the general practice are not yet frequently used by this population. Although a substantial number of persons have a positive intention toward using such services, not all people who receive primary care seem willing to use them. The lack of awareness of the availability and functionality of such services might play an important role.

  • Photo licensed for use by Studio-Annika / iStock Photo.

    Feasibility of Two Educational Methods for Teaching New Mothers: A Pilot Study


    Background: Printed health educational materials are commonly issued to prepare patients for hospital discharge. Teaching methods that engage multiple senses have been shown to positively affect learning outcomes, suggesting that paper materials may not be the most effective approach when educating new mothers. In addition, many written patient educational materials do not meet national health literacy guidelines. Videos that stimulate visual and auditory senses provide an alternative, potentially more effective, strategy for delivering health information. The acceptability of these methods, as perceived by nurses executing patient education initiatives, is important for determining the most appropriate strategy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of 2 educational methods for teaching new mothers how to care for themselves and their infants after hospital discharge. Feasibility was measured by adequate enrollment, acceptability of the intervention to patients and nurses, and initial efficacy. Methods: New mothers (n=98) on a Mother-Baby Unit received health information focused on self-care and infant care delivered as either simple printed materials or YouTube videos on an iPad. Mothers completed a pretest, post-test, and an acceptability survey. Following completion of the initiative, nurses who participated in delivering the health education using one of these 2 methods were asked to complete a survey to determine their satisfaction with and confidence in using the materials. Results: Mothers, on average, were 26 years old; 72% had a high school education; and 41% were African American. The improvement in knowledge scores was significantly higher for the iPad group (8.6% vs 4.4%, P=.02) compared to the pamphlet group. Group (B=4.81, P=.36) and time (B=6.12, P<.001) significantly affected scores, while no significant interaction effect was observed (B=5.69, P=.09). There were no significant differences in responses between the groups (all P values >.05). The nurses had a mean age of 44.3 years (SD 13.9) and had, on average, 16.6 years of experience (SD 13.8). The nurses felt confident and satisfied administering both educational modalities. Conclusions: The pamphlet and iPad were identified as feasible and acceptable modalities for educating new mothers about self-care and infant care, though the iPad was more effective in improving knowledge. Understanding the acceptability of different teaching methods to patient educators is important for successful delivery of informational materials at discharge.

  • Third molars on the Internet (image created by Kamal Maher Batra Hanna).

    Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability


    Background: Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. Objectives: This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as “impacted wisdom tooth problems” using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Results: Websites’ mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, P<.01) and HoNCode (r=.38, P<.01). Less than 25% of websites had SIQ scores above 75%. The mean readability grade (10.3, SD 1.9) was above the recommended level, and was significantly correlated with the Scientific Information Comprehension Scale (r=.45. P<.01), which provides evidence for convergent validity. Website affiliation and DISCERN were significantly associated with SIQ (P<.01) and explained 76% of the SIQ variance. Conclusion: The developed SIQ Scale was found to demonstrate reliability and initial validity. Website affiliation, DISCERN, and HoNCode were significant predictors for the quality of scientific information. The Readability Studio software estimates were associated with scientific information comprehensiveness measures.

  • Yummy Mummy; January 2014
This image is from the public domain (

    Infant Feeding Websites and Apps: A Systematic Assessment of Quality and Content


    Background: Internet websites and smartphone apps have become a popular resource to guide parents in their children’s feeding and nutrition. Given the diverse range of websites and apps on infant feeding, the quality of information in these resources should be assessed to identify whether consumers have access to credible and reliable information. Objective: This systematic analysis provides perspectives on the information available about infant feeding on websites and smartphone apps. Methods: A systematic analysis was conducted to assess the quality, comprehensibility, suitability, and readability of websites and apps on infant feeding using a developed tool. Google and Bing were used to search for websites from Australia, while the App Store for iOS and Google Play for Android were used to search for apps. Specified key words including baby feeding, breast feeding, formula feeding and introducing solids were used to assess websites and apps addressing feeding advice. Criteria for assessing the accuracy of the content were developed using the Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines. Results: A total of 600 websites and 2884 apps were screened, and 44 websites and 46 apps met the selection criteria and were analyzed. Most of the websites (26/44) and apps (43/46) were noncommercial, some websites (10/44) and 1 app were commercial and there were 8 government websites; 2 apps had university endorsement. The majority of the websites and apps were rated poor quality. There were two websites that had 100% coverage of information compared to those rated as fair or poor that had low coverage. Two-thirds of the websites (65%) and almost half of the apps (47%) had a readability level above the 8th grade level. Conclusions: The findings of this unique analysis highlight the potential for website and app developers to merge user requirements with evidence-based content to ensure that information on infant feeding is of high quality. There are currently no apps available to consumers that address a variety of infant feeding topics. To keep up with the rapid turnover of the evolving technology, health professionals need to consider developing an app that will provide consumers with a credible and reliable source of information about infant feeding, using quality assessment tools and evidence-based content.

  • Screenshot of strength and balance exercises from the Otago Exercise Program DVD.

    Understanding the Experiences of Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Using a New DVD-Delivered Otago Exercise Program: A Qualitative Study


    Background: The home-based Otago Exercise Program (OEP) has been shown to reduce the occurrence of falls in community-dwelling seniors. A new OEP DVD was recently developed for people living in rural communities to be used with minimal coaching by a physical therapist. Objective: This study aimed to understand older adults’ experiences using the DVD-delivered OEP and explore barriers and facilitators to implementing the DVD-delivered OEP from the participants’ perspectives. Methods: Rural community-dwelling older adults (75 years and older) who participated in a six-month DVD-delivered OEP study were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Two small group interviews were initially conducted to explore the breadth of participants’ experiences with the program. These were followed by semi-structured individual interviews to gain an in-depth understanding of these experiences. An inductive constant comparison analysis of the transcripts was performed. To ensure methodological rigor, field notes, journaling, and an audit trail were maintained, supplemented by peer-review. Results: Of 32 eligible participants, five participated in group interviews and 16 in individual interviews. Three themes emerged. Theme 1, The OEP DVD—useful training tool but in need of more pep, represented participants’ experiences that the DVD provided important guidance at program onset, but was too slow and low-energy for longer-term use. Theme 2, Gaining control over one’s exercise regimen, but sometimes life gets in the way of staying active, described participants’ appreciation of the program’s flexibility, but personal health concerns and everyday lives posed challenges to adhering to the program. Theme 3, Social creatures—wanting greater human connection during exercise, described how some participants desired further social interactions for enhancing motivation and receiving guidance. Conclusions: Individuals should be encouraged to refer to the OEP user manual or DVD as needed and engage friends and family in exercises. The importance of exercise even when living with health problems should be raised at program onset, and participants should be supported in working through challenging issues. Health professionals should work with individuals to integrate the program with their everyday activities.

  • The image is from

The rights are explained here in German.
It is allowed to use the image without manipulation in journals and online.

    Effectiveness of Organ Donation Information Campaigns in Germany: A Facebook Based Online Survey


    Background: The German transplantation system is in a crisis due to a lack of donor organs. Information campaigns are one of the main approaches to increase organ donation rates. Since 2012, German health insurance funds are obliged by law to inform their members about organ donation. We raised the hypothesis: The willingness to sign a donor card rises due to the subsequent increase of specific knowledge by receiving the information material of the health insurance funds. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the influence of information campaigns on the specific knowledge and the willingness to donate organs. Methods: We conducted an online survey based on recruitment via Facebook groups, advertisements using the snowball effect, and on mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany. Besides the demographic data, the willingness to hold an organ donor card was investigated. Specific knowledge regarding transplantation was explored using five factual questions resulting in a specific knowledge score. Results: We recruited a total of 2484 participants, of which 32.7% (300/917) had received information material. Mean age was 29.9 (SD 11.0, median 26.0). There were 65.81% (1594/2422) of the participants that were female. The mean knowledge score was 3.28 of a possible 5.00 (SD 1.1, median 3.0). Holding a donor card was associated with specific knowledge (P<.001), but not with the general education level (P=.155). Receiving information material was related to holding a donor card (P<.001), but not to a relevant increase in specific knowledge (difference in mean knowledge score 3.20 to 3.48, P=.006). The specific knowledge score and the percentage of organ donor card holders showed a linear association (P<.001). Conclusions: The information campaign was not associated with a relevant increase in specific knowledge, but with an increased rate in organ donor card holders. This effect is most likely related to the feeling of being informed, together with an easy access to the organ donor card.

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